POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC FACTORS IN THE DECISION TO USE THE CHINESE VACCINE

  • Tonny Dian Effendi University of Muhammadiyah Malang
Keywords: vaccine, China, politics, economy, diplomacy

Abstract

This study discusses the factors that may influence the state to use the Chinese vaccines by examining the realism and liberal institution argument that the political value and institutions influence a state to cooperate with another state. This study examines the association between political (democracy) and economic (economic multilateral institution membership) factors and the state’s decision to use Chinese vaccines through regression analysis. This study found that: (1) states with a high level of democracy tend not to use vaccines from China and prefer to use other vaccines; (2) membership in multilateral economic cooperation under China’s leadership (BRI and AIIB) shows different tendencies in vaccine selection. This study shows that domestic politics and the nature of multilateral cooperation in an international institution influence state behavior. This study confirms that the vaccine is a global health issue, but political and economic factors appear to be associated with vaccine selection

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Adams, K. R. (2003). Attack and Conquer? International Anarchy and the Offense-Defense-Deterrence Balance. International Security, 28(3), 45–83. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4137477
AIIB. (2021). Members of the Bank - AIIB. Asian Infrastructure and Investment Bank. https://www.aiib.org/en/about-aiib/governance/members-of-bank/index.html
AlKhaldi, M., James, N., Chattu, V. K., Ahmed, S., Meghari, H., Kaiser, K., IJsselmuiden, C., & Tanner, M. (2021). Rethinking and strengthening the Global Health Diplomacy through triangulated nexus between policy makers, scientists and the community in light of COVID-19 global crisis. Global Health Research and Policy, 6(1), 12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41256-021-00195-2
Bloomber News. (2020). China to Make Decision on WHO Vaccine Program Snubbed by Trump - Bloomberg. Bloomberg. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-09-17/china-to-make-decision-on-who-vaccine-program-snubbed-by-trump
Bourne, P. G. (1978). A partnership for international health care. Public Health Reports (Washington, D.C. : 1974), 93(2), 114–123.
Brown, K., & Wang, R. C. (2020). Politics and Science: The Case of China and The Coronavirus. Asian Affairs, 51(2), 247–264. https://doi.org/10.1080/03068374.2020.1752567
Chattu, V. K., & Knight, W. A. (2019). Global Health Diplomacy as a Tool of Peace. Peace Review, 31(2), 148–157. https://doi.org/10.1080/10402659.2019.1667563
Cohen, J. (2020). China’s vaccine gambit. Science (New York, N.Y.), 370(6522), 1263–1267. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.370.6522.1263
Devonshire-Ellis, C. (2020). China’s COVID-19 Vaccine Development and Availability. China Briefing. https://www.china-briefing.com/news/chinas-covid-19-vaccine-development-and-availability/
Doyle, M. W. (1986). Liberalism and World Politics. The American Political Science Review, 80(4), 1151–1169. https://doi.org/10.2307/1960861
Elbe, S., & Buckland-Merrett, G. (2017). Data, disease and diplomacy: GISAID’s innovative contribution to global health. Global Challenges (Hoboken, NJ), 1(1), 33–46. https://doi.org/10.1002/gch2.1018
European Commission. (2020). Coronavirus: Chinese aid to the EU delivered to Italy. European Commission. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_20_600
Freedom House. (2021). Freedom in the World. https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world
Freymann, E., & Stebbing, J. (2020). China Is Winning the Vaccine Race | Foreign Affairs. Foreign Affairs. https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/united-states/2020-11-05/china-winning-vaccine-race
Gramacho, W. G., & Turgeon, M. (2021). When politics collides with public health: COVID-19 vaccine country of origin and vaccination acceptance in Brazil. Vaccine, 39(19), 2608–2612. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.03.080
Greenough, P., Blume, S., & Holmberg, C. (2017). Introduction. In C. Holmberg, S. Blume, & P. Greenough (Eds.), The Politics of Vaccination: A Global History (pp. 1–16). Manchester University Press.
Ha, H. T. (2021). Southeast Asians’ Declining Trust in China. ISEAS Yusof Ishak Institute. http://hdl.handle.net/11540/13254
Hotez, P. J. (2001). Vaccines as instruments of foreign policy. The new vaccines for tropical infectious diseases may have unanticipated uses beyond fighting diseases. EMBO Reports, 2(10), 862–868. https://doi.org/10.1093/embo-reports/kve215
Hotez, P. J. (2014). “Vaccine diplomacy”: historical perspectives and future directions. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 8(6), e2808–e2808. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002808
Hotez, P. J. (2021). Preventing The Next Pandemic: Vaccine Diplomacy in a Time of Anti-Science. John Hopkins University Press.
Hung, J. (2021). In China’s “Vaccine Diplomacy” with The Philippines, Both Sides are Taking Big Risks. East-West Center. https://www.eastwestcenter.org/news-center/east-west-wire/in-china’s-‘vaccine-diplomacy’-the-philippines-both-sides-are-taking-big
Japan Times. (2020). China’s “vaccine diplomacy”: A global charm offensive | The Japan Times. The Japan Times. https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2020/12/10/asia-pacific/china-vaccine-diplomacy/
Katz, R., Kornblet, S., Arnold, G., Lief, E., & Fischer, J. E. (2011). Defining health diplomacy: Changing demands in the era of globalization. Milbank Quarterly, 89(3), 503–523. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0009.2011.00637.x
Keohane, R. O., & Martin, L. L. (1995). The promise of institutionalist theory. International Security, 20, 39+.
Killeen, O. J., Davis, A., Tucker, J. D., & Mason Meier, B. (2018). Chinese Global Health Diplomacy in Africa: Opportunities and Challenges. Global Health Governance : The Scholarly Journal for the New Health Security Paradigm, 12(2), 4–29. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30956750
Kim, J. H., Hotez, P., Batista, C., Ergonul, O., Figueroa, J. P., Gilbert, S., Gursel, M., Hassanain, M., Kang, G., Lall, B., Larson, H., Naniche, D., Sheahan, T., Shoham, S., Wilder-Smith, A., Strub-Wourgaft, N., Yadav, P., & Bottazzi, M. E. (2021). Operation Warp Speed: implications for global vaccine security. The Lancet Global Health, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/s2214-109x(21)00140-6
Minghui, R., & Guoping, L. (2014). China’s global health strategy. Lancet (London, England), 384(9945), 719–721. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61317-9
Munoz, M. (2020). Diplomacy in times of COVID-19 | DiploFoundation. Diplo. https://www.diplomacy.edu/blog/diplomacy-times-covid-19
Nedopil, C. (2021). Countries of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) – Green Belt and Road Initiative Center. IIGF Green BRI Center. https://green-bri.org/countries-of-the-belt-and-road-initiative-bri/
Pannu, J., & Barry, M. (2021). The state inoculates: vaccines as soft power. The Lancet. Global Health. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(21)00091-7
Ritchie, H., Ortoz-Ospina, E., Beltekian, D., Mathieu, E., Hasell, J., Macdonald, B., Ciattino, C., Appel, C., & Roser, M. (2021). Coronavirus (COVID-19) Vaccinations - Statistics and Research - Our World in Data. Our World Data. https://ourworldindata.org/covid-vaccinations#source-information-country-by-country
Rudolf, M. (2021). China’s Health Diplomacy during Covid-19. SWP-Stiftung Wissenschaft Und Politik, 2021/C(9), 1–8. https://doi.org/doi:10.18449/2021C09
Tan, C., & Maulia, E. (2020). Red Pill? Behind China’s COVID-19 vaccine diplomacy - Nikkei Asia. Nikkei Asia. https://asia.nikkei.com/Spotlight/The-Big-Story/Red-Pill-Behind-China-s-COVID-19-vaccine-diplomacy
Tang, K., Li, Z., Li, W., & Chen, L. (2017). China’s Silk Road and global health. The Lancet, 390(10112), 2595–2601. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32898-2
Vangeli, A. (2021). Western Balkan Discourse On and Positioning Towards China During the COVID-19 Pandemic. The Prague Security Studies Institute.
WHO. (2021). Global health security is integral to foreign policy. http://www.emro.who.int/health-topics/health-diplomacy/foreign-policy.html
World Integrated Trade Solution. (2021). China trade balance, exports, imports by country and region 2018 | WITS Data. World Bank. https://wits.worldbank.org/CountryProfile/en/Country/CHN/Year/LTST/TradeFlow/EXPIMP#

PlumX Metrics

Published
2022-08-20
How to Cite
Effendi, T. D. (2022). POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC FACTORS IN THE DECISION TO USE THE CHINESE VACCINE. Indonesian Journal of International Relations, 6(2), 247-266. https://doi.org/10.32787/ijir.v6i2.385