THE IMPACT OF MIGRATION SECURITIZATION ON THE INCREASE OF ISLAMOPHOBIA-BASED ATTACKS IN THE UNITED STATES IN 2015-2019
This paper will discuss the United States policy under Donald Trump's administration which places migration as an agenda of securitization by restricting immigrants from entering the United States, especially Muslim immigrants. Trump firmly said to reject the entry of immigrants from six Muslim countries, namely Chad, Iran, Libya, Syria, Somalia and Yemen. Trump also added that the ban on the entry of immigrants was also applied to Venezuelans and North Koreans. The step was taken by Trump with the aim of ensuring the security of the United States from various threats potentially brought by the immigrants. Then, this paper will answer the big questions about how securitization of migration affected the emergence of Islamophobia in the United States. In analyzing these problems, we use the concept of securitization of migration with four operational variables, namely: 1. Framing by speech acts, 2. Politicization of fear, 3. The impacts (positive and negative): Securitization policy and the islamophobia actions. The results of this study indicate that securitization of migration process has an impact on the increasing actions of Islamophobia-based in the United States.
Keywords: Securitization of Migration, Travel Ban Policy, Islamophobia, United States
Andrés Villarreal. 2014. Explaining the Decline in Mexico-U.S. Migration: The Effect of the Great Recession. Demography, volume 51. Downloaded from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13524-014-0351-4
Balzacq, T. (2005). The Three Faces of Securitization: Political Agency, Audience and Context. European Journal of Internal Relations, Vol. 11(2). Downloaded from: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1354066105052960
Belokenov, Sergey Yu, Sergey A. Vodopetof, Vladimir G. Ivanov. 2019. The Impact of Migration from Venezuela on the Domestic Political Situation in the United States. Journal of Political Science, volume 21, issue 2. Accessed from: http://journals.rudn.ru/political-science/article/view/21842
Brennan, C. & Sommerfeldt, C. (2017). Kansas man accused of fatally shooting Indian engineer after shouting ‘get out of my country’, Daily News, 23 February 2017. Available on: https://www.nydailynews.com/news/national/man-shouting-racial-slurs-kills-wounds-article-1.2980033 (Accessed on 14 December 2019)
Buzan, Barry and Weaver, Ole and De Wilde, Jaap. 1998. Security: a new framework for analysis. Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Ceyhan, A. & Tsoukala, A. (2002). The Securitization of Migration in Western Societies: Ambivalent Discourses and Policies. Alternatives 27, Special Issue. 21-39. Downloaded from: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/03043754020270S103?journalCode=alta
Chong, Dennis and. Druckman, James, N. (2007). “Framing Theory”. Annual Review of Political Science. No 10. Accessed from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228198044_Framing_Theory
Chuck, E. (2017). “Bomb Blast Shakes Minnesota Mosque as Worshipers Prepare for Prayers. NBC News, 6 August 2017. Available on : https://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/feds-investigate-explosion-shook-bloomington-minnesota-mosque-n789891 (Accessed on 15 December 2019)
Clark, D. A. (2016). Queens Imam Murder: Oscar Morel Charged With Killing of Maulama Akonjee. Newseek, 16 August 2016. Available on : https://www.newsweek.com/oscar-morel-imam-maulama-akonjee-queens-murder-thara-uddin-new-york-490884 (Accessed on 15 December 2019)
Copley, Lauren. 2014. What Does Policy Have to Do with It? The Political Economy of Latino Sex Trafficking in The United States. Crime Law Social Change, Vol. 62. Accessed from: https://research-portal.najah.edu/migrant/37279/
Correa-Cabrera, Guadalupe and Miriam Rojas-Arenaza. 2012. The Mathematics of Mexico-US Migration and US Immigration Policy. Journal of Policy Studies, vol. 33, Issue 4.
Curley, Melissa G. and Herington, Jonathan. (2011). “The securitization of avian influenza: international discourse and domestic politics in Asia”. Review of International Studies. Vol. 37:1. Accessed from: https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/review-of-international-studies/article/securitisation-of-avian-influenza-international-discourses-and-domestic-politics-in-asia/9FAE1C67ADB28EDA0932420360C9386E
Del Valle, L. (2017). 2 Muslim Women, Babies Attacked in Alleged Hate Crime. CNN, 10 September 2016. Available on : www.cnn.com/2016/09/10/us/brooklyn-muslim-women-attacked/index.html (Accessed on 15 December 2019)
Exec. Order No. 13769 (2017). Protecting the Nation From Foreign Terrorist Entry Into the United States. Executive Office of the President. 82 FR 8977–8982. 1st February 2017. Available on: https://www.whitehouse.gov/presidential-actions/executive-order-protecting-nation-foreign-terrorist-entry-united-states-2/ (Accessed on 14 December 2019)
Gentsch, Kerstin and Douglas S. Massey. 2011. Labor Market Outcomes for Legal Mexican Immigrants Under the New Regime of Immigration Enforcement. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 92, No. 3. Accessed From: https://www.jstor.org/stable/42956552
Ghabra, Omar. (2017). Even in Liberal Seattle and Washington State, Islamophobia Is On the Rise. The Stranger, 7 June 2017. Available on : https://www.thestranger.com/features/2017/06/07/25195502/even-in-liberal-seattle-and-washington-state-islamophobia-is-on-the-rise (Accessed on 15 December 2019)
Harvard, S. A. (2016). 2 Muslim Men Were Shot Near Minneapolis Mosque, Police Are Investigating as Hate Crime. Mic, 2 July 2016. Available on : https://www.mic.com/articles/147640/2-muslim-men-were-shot-near-minneapolis-mosque-police-are-investigating-as-hate-crime#.KHsVINeYv (Accessed on 15 December 2019)
Hate Crime Suspects Beats Salem Restaurant Employee with Pipe. KPTV, 10 March 2017. Available on :. https://www.kptv.com/news/hate-crime-suspect-beats-salem-restaurant-employee-with-pipe/article_a56ce15c-0d57-5c3e-a95b-4d42a2dc0985.html
(Accessed on 15 December 2019)
Huysmans, Jef. 2006. The Politics of Insecurity. Fear, Migration and Asylum in the EU. London: Routledge.
Hyman, A. & Keegan, C. (2017). Suspect Charged in Fort Pierce Mosque Arson Sentenced to 30 Years, WPTV, 7 February 2017. Available on : http://www.wptv.com/news/region-st-lucie-county/fort-pierce/suspect-charged-in-fort-pierce-mosque-arson-to-appear-in-court-again-monday (Accessed on 15 December 2019)
Jacoby, William. G. (2000). “Issue framing and public opinion on government spending”. American Journal of Political Science. Vol. 44. Accessed from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/2669279
Johnson, Jenna. (2015). Trump Calls for ‘Total and Complete Shutdown of Muslims Entering The United States’, The Washington Post, 8 December. Available on : https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/post-politics/wp/2015/12/07/donald-trump-calls-for-total-and-complete-shutdown-of-muslims-entering-the-united-states/?noredirect=on (Acessed on 14 December 2019)
Jouvenal, J. Va. 2017. Man Charger with Hate Crime After Using Muslim Slurs, Biting Victim’s Face, Police Say. The Washington Post, 27 February 2017. Available on:. https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/public-safety/va-man-charged-with-hate-crime-after-using-muslim-slurs-biting-victims-face-police-say/2017/02/27/8524182a-c819-4c4a-8131-7f93766eeb5e_story.html (Accessed on 15 December 2019)
Kestler-D’Amours, J. (2016). Man Killed in Suspected ‘Anti-Crime’, Al-Jazeera, 18 August 2016. Accessed on: https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2016/08/man-killed-suspected-anti-muslim-hate-crime-160816191517636.html
Martin, Philip. 2017. Immigration Policy and Agriculture: Possible Directions for the Future. Journal on Migration & Human Security, Vol. 5 Issue. Downloaded from: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/233150241700500202
Mayda, Anna Maria. 2010. International migration: a panel data analysis of the determinants of bilateral flows. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 23, No. 4. Accessed from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/40925859?seq=1
McDonald, M. (2008). Securitization and the Construction of Security. European Journal of International Relations 14 (4). Accessed from: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1354066108097553
Mele, Christopher. (2017). Man Kicked J.F.K. Airport Worker Wearing Hijab, Prosecutor Says, The New York Times, 26 January 2017. Available on: https://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/26/nyregion/queens-ny-jfk-attack.html (Accessed on 14 December 2019)
Muslim Woman Pushed Down NYC Stairs, Called “Terrorist”. CBS News, 5 December 2016. Available on : https://www.cbsnews.com/news/muslim-woman-new-york-city-pushed-down-stairs-subway-called-terrorist/?linkId=31992332 (Accessed on 15 December 2019)
Niayesh, Vahid. (2019). Statistic show that Trump’s “travel ban” was always a Muslim ban, Quartz, 29 Oktober 2019. Available on: https://qz.com/1736809/statistics-show-that-trumps-travel-ban-was-always-a-muslim-ban/ (Accessed on 14 December 2019)
Oswald, Debra L. (2005). Understanding Anti-Arab Reactions Post-9/11: The Role of Threats, Social Categories, and Personal Ideologies. Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 35 (9). Accessed from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/229541125_Understanding_Anti-Arab_Reactions_Post-911_The_Role_of_Threats_Social_Categories_and_Personal_Ideologies1
Pries, Ludger. 2019. Momentum of Transnational Socialspaces In Mexico-US-Migration. Comparative Migration Studies, Vol. 7:34. Downloaded from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/335208909_The_momentum_of_transnational_social_spaces_in_Mexico-US-migration
Reny, Tyler. 2017. Demographic Change, Latino Countermobilization, And the Politics of Immigration in US Senate Campaigns. Political Research Quarterly 2017, Vol. 70(4). Accessed from: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1065912917713155
Reyna, R., Dimon, L., & Annese, J. (2016). Homeless Man Throws Coffee at Muslim Woman, Calls Her ‘Terrorist’ in Manhattan Dunkin. New York Daily News, 19 December 2016. Available on : https://www.nydailynews.com/new-york/manhattan/homeless-man-throws-coffee-muslim-woman-nyc-dunkin-donuts-article-1.2915553 (Accessed on 15 December 2019)
Roberts, D. (2016). Indian Immigrant Says Attacker Yelles “ISIS” Profanities at him before Attacking. KETV. Available on : https://www.ketv.com/article/indian-immigrant-says-attacker-yelled-isis-profanities-at-him-before-attacking-1/40770974# (Accessed on 15 December 2019).
Robin, C. (2004). History of an Idea, dalam Fear: The History of a Political Idea. Oxford University Press.
Salehyan, Idean and Marc R. Rosenblum, 2008. International Relations, Domestic Politics, and Asylum Admissions in the United States. Political Research Quarterly Volume 61 Number. Downloaded from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/20299714?seq=1
San Benardino Shootings Investigated as Terrorism – FBI, BBC, 4 December 2015. Available on: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-35006404 (Diakses pada 14 December 2019)
Shabad R. (2017). “No, Trump’s victory was not the biggest Electoral College win since Reagan”. Quoted from: http://www.cbsnews.com/news/no-trumpsvictory-was-not-the-biggest-electoralcollege-win-since-reagan/
Stevens, M. & Hamilton, M. (2016) Man Stabs Worshiper Near Simi Valley Mosque in Hate Crime, Police Allege”. Los Angeles Times, 12 December 2016. Available on : https://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-ln-simi-valley-mosque-stabbing-20161211-story.html (Accessed on 15 December 2019)
Tkaczyk, Michal. 2017. Between Politicization and Securitization: Coverage of the European Migration Crisis in Czech Online News Media. Communication Today, Vol. 8, No. 2. Downloaded from: https://www.communicationtoday.sk/download/22017/07.-TKACZYK-E28093-CT-2-2017.pdf
Tromble, Rebekah. (2014). “Securitising Islam, securitising ethnicity: the discourse of Uzbek Radicalism in Kyrgyzstan”. East European Politics. Vol. 30:4.
Wang, A. B. (2017). A Man Assumed a Store’s Indian owners were Muslim, SO He Tried to Burn it Down, Police Say”. The Washington Post, 12 March 2017. Available on : https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/post-nation/wp/2017/03/12/police-man-started-dumpster-fire-to-run-the-arabs-out-of-our-country-the-victims-were-indian/ (Accessed on 15 December 2019)
Copyright (c) 2020 Indonesian Journal of International Relations
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.