SEKURITISASI ISU LINGKUNGAN DALAM HAMBATAN PERDAGANGAN SAWIT DI EUROPEAN GREEN DEAL

  • Ilham Dary Athallah Universitas Airlangga
Keywords: European Green Deal; Sawit; Sekuritisasi;, Proteksionisme; Minyak Nabati

Abstract

Tulisan ini akan menganalisis proses kemunculan inward-looking syndrome yang bertentangan dengan semangat globalisasi, dalam studi kasus proteksionisme perdagangan terhadap sawit yang dilakukan Uni Eropa lewat kebijakan European Green Deal. Kemunculan kebijakan ini menarik untuk didalami, karena bukan merupakan fenomena tunggal yang sedang terjadi dalam konteks global, yaitu kuatnya resistensi atas semangat perdagangan bebas yang dibawa globalisasi. Selain itu, terdapat perang wacana ketika proteksionisme dagang dijustifikasi dengan narasi bahwa komoditas sawit adalah sumber ancaman dari kerusakan lingkungan, terlepas dari efisiensi sawit dibanding minyak nabati lainnya dan komitmen keberlanjutan yang telah dilakukan Indonesia sebagai produsen sawit terbesar dunia bersama aktor negara produsen sawit lain. Menggunakan teori sekuritisasi, paper ini akan menjelaskan bagaimana sawit diposisikan sebagai existential threat bagi lingkungan hidup, sehingga terjadi upaya sekuritisasi (securitizing move) berupa narasi (speech act) yang mempersepsikan sawit secara negatif. Kebijakan European Green Deal yang berisi langkah-langkah proteksionisme terhadap sawit juga akan dijelaskan sebagai extraordinary measures yang disetujui oleh audiens, karena: 1) telah terbentuk narasi bahwa otoritas perlu melindungi masyarakat sebagai referent object dari ancaman lingkungan yang dinarasikan, 2) didukung kepentingan petani dan perusahaan multinasional di bidang agrikultur sebagai securitizing actor yang menghendaki proteksionisme karena selama ini minyak nabati yang diproduksinya berkompetisi langsung dengan sawit, dan 3) politisi di Komisi Eropa turut menjadi aktor sekuritisasi karena insentif elektoral yang mereka terima ketika mendukung industri dan opini yang populer di mata publik.

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Published
2022-02-24
How to Cite
Athallah, I. D. (2022). SEKURITISASI ISU LINGKUNGAN DALAM HAMBATAN PERDAGANGAN SAWIT DI EUROPEAN GREEN DEAL. Indonesian Journal of International Relations, 6(1), 176-204. https://doi.org/10.32787/ijir.v6i1.300